car and auto magazine pdf
28-01-2015, 17:29PrintA car, (also motor vehicle, early engine carriage), is a mehrspuriges automobile (one street vehicle powered by an engine) which serves for the transportation of people (passenger car and coach) and cargoes (truck). Colloquially – and also in this article – by car mostly vehicles are called whose design is determined predominantly for the transportation of human beings and with a passenger car driving licence may be led.
The worldwide vehicle continuance continuously rises and lay in 2010 with more than 1,015 milliard cars. In 2011 were built worldwide more than 80 million cars. In Germany about 51.7 million automobiles were admitted in 2012, of it are just 43 million passenger cars.
Car is a substantiviertes adjective. It originated at the end of the 19th century from the French concept for a streetcar pursued with compressed air: voiture automobile, selfmoving carriage. It is derived from in Greek αὐτός autós‚ even‘ and in Latin mobilis‚ flexibly‘ and served for the differentiation of the usual land vehicles which were pulled at that time by horses.
The definition „selfmoving vehicle“ would enclose also motorised two-wheeled vehicles and rail vehicles. As a rule rail-engaged automobile is understood by a car, nevertheless, mehrspuriges and not, so a passenger car, coach or truck in the everyday language is meant mostly only the passenger car. The Darmstadt lecturer in motor vehicle, baron Löw from and to Steinfurth, tried in his standard work The car – his construction and his company about all issues from 1909 away in very exact definitions of "car". In the 5th edition of 1924 he writes:
„The car is a vehicle,
1. is moved by machine strength,
2. the energy source serving for his local change carries in itself,
3. uses usual street roadways, and
4. even takes up the people to be carried or goods – at least partly–.“
– Ludwig Löw from and to Steinfurth: The car – his construction and his company, 5th edition of 1924
To light up this strict classification, he leaves out, for example, demand 2 and comes with it „to the so-called roads without rail which exist of electric carriages to which the energy is supplied by a direction.“
Into English only one passenger car is described by an automobile one or coach. There is not a translation for the purposes of cited from and to Steinfurth into English; the word often mentioned in this connection Engine vehicle also encloses motorcycles with and is to be equated therefore to the German "automobile".
→ main article: History of the car
1886 is valid by the Benz patent engine carriage number 1 of the German inventor Carl Benz as the year of birth of the modern car with internal combustion engine. Indeed, besides, it does not concern after today's legislation a passenger car, because he owns only three wheels. Before other inventors already built motorised carriages with similar or totally other engine draughts.
Motorised carriages removed the carts pulled by draught animals in nearly all areas, because they clearly quick and can go on and produce a higher achievement. By this advantage the width of the put back distances increased since the invention of the car, among other things, therefore, more and more space was conceded to the motorised traffic.
To the essential components of the car belong the chassis with chassis and other parts, distant car body, engine, gear and interior. High-strength steel goodnesses pass to more than 54% of steel European passenger car, half of it. 2
After figures of the WHO 1.2 million people die yearly of the direct results of traffic accidents.
Among the rest, the security of passengers and potential other parties of automobiles is depending on organizational and constructive measures as well as the personal behaviour the road user. To the organizational measures count, for example, traffic steering system (road traffic regulations with road signs or a little more fashionably by traffic leading systems), legal regulations (belt duty, Telefonierverbot), traffic supervision and street-architectural measures.
The constructive security facilities of modern cars can be arranged basically of two different areas. Passive security facilities should tone down if an accident is not to be avoided the results. For example, the seat belt, the security headrest, the seatbelt tensioner, the air bag, the roll bar, deformable steering wheels with releaseable steering columns, the crumple zone, the side impact protection as well as constructive measures for the other party protection count to it. Active security facilities should prevent an accident or lower in his gravity. Examples for this are the anti-skid system (ABS) as well as the electronic stability programme (ESP).
Behaviour patterns like a defensive driving manner, the observance of the traffic regulations or training of the vehicle control count to the personal measures, for example, in a safe driving training. This as well as the road safety education especially for children help to decrease the personal accident risk.
All measures for the rise of the road safety can contribute together to the fact that the number of the people killed with a traffic accident is reduced. In most industrial nations the sacrificial figures are falling for many years. Today in Europe traffic accidents as a cause of death play a lower role than some decades ago, the number of the deaths lies among the figures of the drug victims or suicide ducks. Thus the sacrificial figures fell in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands or Switzerland since the 1970s, in spite of hardly falling figures of the traffic accidents, on one third. In 2011 the number of the road casualties has risen in Germany for the first time for 20 years again, 4 in Austria and Switzerland, however, on the historically deepest state.
After longer voluntary action the driving with switched on light was introduced on the day in Austria on the 15th of November, 2005 obliging and was called in 2007 also by punishment. However, to the 1st of January, 2008 the light duty was abolished again. These were 5 aims of this campaign to focus the human sensations on the safety hazards and to reduce with it the number of the road casualties. Estimates of the Federal Ministry according to 15 road casualties were expected yearly less. Indeed, the expected effect did not appear, there the attention of unlit safety hazards (obstacles or other road users increases possibly pedestrian) away to the moved and illuminated vehicles was steered. Also in Norway more road casualties were counted during the years after the introduction of the light duty in 1985 clearly than during the years before it. Nevertheless, the introduction of such a measure is taken into consideration in some countries (possibly Germany) furthermore.
→ main article: Autonomous land vehicle
Car farmer 7 and ancillary industries, as well as enterprises from the IT branch (in particular Google 8) do research and develop in the autonomous going automobile (mostly passenger car). „Robot cars are more sensitive and surer drivers than you and me“ (Chris Urmson, Googles project manager and Carnegie Mellon professor: heise.de: "Tail wind for autonomous cars"). Experiences of American car insurances would suggest that already the announcements of the Assistenz-Sensorik the accident risk can lower. The view will also represent 9 that some degree will not prevent the success of autonomous cars in insecurity.
The „Viennese arrangement about the traffic“ from 1968 forbade long time autonomous cars, nevertheless, was changed at the middle of May, 2014 by UN, so that „the systems with which a passenger car goes autonomous are allowed if they can be stopped any time by the driver.“, among the rest, (welt.de) 11 Before it prescribed that have every vehicle located in movement a driver and this must also control the vehicle. Only few points are probably to be cleared in particular with regard to the liability questions in accidents. Nevertheless, 12 California leant towards in the progress up to now which had liberal regulations for autonomous cars long time the legal situation was aggravated in 2014 - now a person must sit always at the wheel who can intervene „any time“.
With autonomous cars big changes are forecast in the social contact with the car:
With autonomous hired cars could search on inquiry (e.g., by Smartphone) near positioned independently herbeifahren and itself later in the aim even somewhere a parking lot and wait if necessary for the next customer.
Autonomous cars must not be lying round any more most time, but can offer „its services“ by which they would be better used to capacity than private passenger car.
By these possibilities Carsharing can become more comfortable and more favorable, and more people would probably renounce own passenger car.
In May, 2014 Google announced that 100 test vehicles should be built. Besides, should be renounced steering wheel, brake and accelerator pedal. The vehicles are electric cars. The vehicles should change not in private property, but serve virtually as driverless taxis or transport capsules. In a video Google like private individual shows the prototype test. Google unites with it the new principles electric car, autonomous driving and Car-Sharing (see also autonomous surface vehicle).
Costs for the vehicle owner
The whole operating expenses of a car sit down together from fixed costs (also "maintenance" called) and variable costs (also "operating expenses" called), there there comes the depreciation of the car. The costs are underestimated by many people.
The fixed costs result regardless of the annual kilometerage. They sit down in the essentials together from the road tax as well as the compulsory automobile liability insurances as well as sporadically prescribed technical check.
Besides voluntary complementary insurances can be concluded like a fully comprehensive insurance as well as other assurances as well as additional performances similar to assurance which offer the automobile associations with a membership.
The operating expenses depend on the annual kilometerage. They sit down together from the mileage, the substitute of wearing parts (in particular tyre), the vehicle cleaning as well as other servicing and at most additional repair. The servicing is necessary according to time and kilometres. Typical time intervals lie with from 1 to 2 years, typical kilometre intervals with 10,000 km to 30,000 km. Moreover, not keeping 19 becoming the servicing intervals, this can lead to difficulties with guarantee claims with defects.
Not directly dependent on kilometre are the attacking park and toll fees.
The purchase price decreases immediately as a depreciation on the respective market value dependent on time during with the leasing a similar loss by interest payments develops.
Federal Statistical Office of Germany and ADAC publish every three months an auto costs index. This brags around how much percent different cost components have gone up or have reduced in price. 20
Regardless of the road performance fixed costs and depreciation or repair costs from – as a function of the vehicle class – attack about 200 euros in the month. With annual road performance of 15,000 kilometres or 30,000 kilometres is to be calculated on monthly whole operating expenses of more than 320 euros or more than 430 euros.
From the general public born costs
The passenger car traffic brings external costs, in particular in the area of Environmental pollution and accident consequential costs, with itself. Many of the besides looked dimensions are to be quantified hardly or only very about, which is why different publications name high external costs on the subject differently.
According to federal environment office the external costs in the traffic in Germany amounted in 2005 to a total of 76,946 billion euros from what 61.2 billion on the people and 15.8 billion were cancelled to the goods traffic. Besides, the accident costs put out 52% (41.7 billion euros) of the external costs correspond. The federal environment office calculated in 2007 that passenger car in Germany on an average about 3 cents per kilometre cause in costs for environment and health which develop primarily from air pollution. This proves computationally costs of 3000 euros for a passenger car with 100,000 kilometres of run performance. For truck these costs amount even to 17 cents per kilometre. 23 these external costs are carried not or only partially by the traffic, but are financed among other things by steering wheels as well as health insurance scheme contributions and social security contributions. The Kostenunterdeckung of the traffic (everybody by the traffic directly and indirectly to caused costs less all steering wheels performed in connection with the traffic and deliveries) numbers the federal environment office for 2005 at about 60 billion euros.
The Austrian passenger car traffic carried in 2000 only one part of the costs caused by him: A large part of the costs for the establishment and preservation of the streets as well as the secondary costs like accident costs and environmental costs (noise, air pollutants) of all road users are taken over from the general public. While the passenger car traffic arose for 38% of the costs caused by him, coaches bore own costs to 10% and truck to 21%.
Effects of the automobilization
The passenger car traffic is a research object of the national economy, in particular of the traffic science. The car as an industrial mass product has changed the everyday life of the humanity. Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been more than 2,500 enterprises who produced cars. Many enterprises who produced in the 19th century ironwares or steel started at the middle of the century with manufacturing weapons or bicycles and developed thus the knowledge, decades later in the motor-car construction were required.
Today it returns – still or – many small companies who produce as an automanufacture – mostly exclusively – vehicles, for example Morgan (GB).
Passenger cars in Germany since 1975
Passenger cars in Switzerland since 1910
The meaning of the car is based beside the relatively high physical efficiency of the system also on the high generosity in the possibilities of utilisation with regard to the transport duties and the development of spatial or geographical areas. Till the 19th century there were only few means of transportation, for example, the carriage or the horse. Though the spreading of the railway increased the cruising speed, but one was bound to timetables and certain anchorage points. By the bicycle an individual means of transportation suited for ground was available from the end of the 19th century for the first time, indeed, allowed only the car individual motorised locomotion as well as the adaptable and quick transport also of bigger loads. In the 1960s ruled a regular euphoria from which a prevailing opinion developed, the whole living space must be subordinated to the mobility („Autofair town“). Nevertheless, already in the 1970s some such projects were stopped. The issues from the traffic also rise in 2011 still and in contrast to the fuels the agreed aims cannot be fulfilled to the climate protection with the fuels (in Switzerland).
All together 49.648.043 cars were admitted to the 1st of January, 2004 in Germany. In comparison to pedestrians and bicycles, but also by coaches and roads the car has a higher place need. In particular in conurbations this leads to problems by traffic jams and need in public surfaces by which some of the advantages of the car resolve.
The goods traffic on the street is an elementary component of the today's economy. Thus it permits the flexibility of the utility vehicles to bring slightly perishable goods directly to the retail trade or to the end user. Today mobile construction machines take over a large part of the construction performances. The Just-in-time-Produktion allows a quicker construction expiry. Concrete is mixed in concrete works and afterwards is brought with driving mixers to the men at work, mobile concrete pumps save the scaffolding or crane construction.
Environment and health
Scrapped passenger car
The plentiful company of internal combustion engines in cars leads to environmental problems, on the one hand locally by car emissions which are often avoidable according to state of the technology, and, on the other hand, worldwide by the system-conditioned CO2 output which contributes to the climate warming.
The air pollution by the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engines takes, just in conurbations, often unhealthy magnitude in (smog, particulate matter). The fuels of the engines contain toxic substances like xylene, toluol, benzene as well as aldehydes. Even more toxic additions of lead are not usual at least in Europe and the USA any more.
Also the street noise predominantly caused by the car damages the health. There comes that the motoring, particularly for longer time, can be partially connected with lack of exercise.
The consumption of mineral oil, a fossil energy source to the company of conventional cars generates a CO2 output and contributes with it to the greenhouse effect. The ecological balance of the car is worst of all moving means of transportation, it is excelled only by the airplane. 27
2050 cars with internal combustion engine drive from the city centres of Europe should be exiled up to the year to plannings of the EU commission totally.
The Zaschka-folding car: Engelbert Zaschka demonstrates the decomposition of the folding town car, in 1929
The huge surface consumption for vehicles and traffic routes reduces the living space for people, animals and plants. The place and parking lot problem of the conurbations appeared already in the 1920s and already in 1929 the German engineer and inventor Engelbert Zaschka in Berlin pursued the beginning of the divisible Zaschka-Threewheelers (folding car). This town car conception had the aim reasonable and save more space, while the vehicle can be folded up after use. 29 30 31
In addition, the manufacturing of the car uses considerable amounts in raw materials, water and energy. Greenpeace goes out from a water consumption of 20,000 l for a middle-of-the-market car. 32 The magazine Spiegel calculates for the production of a passenger car of the upper middle class (possibly: Mercedes E class) even 226,000 l of water. Branch-positive 380,000 l look at (33) The water economy about a vehicle as necessary. The car becomes currently (2013) 85 percent recycles and to 95 percent used (metallic components: Recycling rate 97 percent).
The traffic club of Germany (VCD) publishes an overview to the environmental friendliness of in each case topical passenger car models yearly in the car-environmental list.
To the dangers of the motor traffic or to the costs caused by his environmental influences see the chapters Safety or external Costs.
The widespread use of the car should change the social rooms – among other things the following effects were deplored in Switzerland:
Children can play more and more seldom unattended on the street;
Leisure places further lie away than earlier;
consequently less spontaneous physical activity, as well as, for example, a halving of the use of the bicycle with young Swiss within 20 years.
The whole childish development is influenced.
Passenger car-consumption marking order
→ main article: Segment Passenger car in the article energy consumption marking
Since the 1st of December, 2011 new vehicles are to be provided in Germany with an energy consumption marking. The classes reach from A + to G. The consumption is covered to the vehicle weight with which comparisons are possible only within a weight category. The fact that a lighter vehicle needs less energy for a transport than a heavier vehicle with the same marks, is not recognizable in the label.
(see also topical development trends)
Alternative drives like the electric car (see also electromobile) belong to the new developments. A further development is the autonomous driving (see. Autonomous surface vehicle). By Carsharing a car of the private property changes in a communal possession. One more development are flight cars.
Main entrance: Car and motorcycle – overview of the content on the subject Car and Motorcycle
Alternative drive technology
Automuseum Dr. Carl Benz
Development of the Otto fuels
List of the car brands
Low energy vehicle
Means of transportation
Automobile adaptation for handicapped people
History of the safety in the traffic
Euro of NCAP